With thedevelopment of modern high-tech, advanced ceramics has gradually become animportant part of new materials, as well as the significant materials of thedevelopment of many high-tech fields. Meanwhile, it has been arouse greatconcern by many industry developed countries, and itsdevelopment to a large extent also affecting the development and progress ofother industries. Due to its wonderful structure and high strength, highhardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance,conductive, insulation, magnetic, translucent, semiconductors andpiezoelectric, ferroelectric, acousto-optic, superconductivity,biocompatibility, it is widely used in national defense, chemical, metallurgy,electronics, machinery, aviation, aerospace, biomedical and other areas of thenational economy. The development of advanced ceramics is a new growth point ofthe national economy, its research, application, development status are one ofthe most symbols of representing the national economy comprehensive strength.
Advanced ceramics is "a highly selected or synthetic rawmaterial, with precise control of the chemical composition, in accordance withthe ease of control of manufacturing technology processing, easy to carry outstructural design, and excellent characteristics of the ceramic."According to its characteristics and uses, can be divided into two categories:structural ceramics and functional ceramics. Structural ceramics is a ceramicthat can be used as a structural material. It has high strength, high hardness,high elastic modulus, high temperature resistance, abrasion resistance andthermal shock resistance. The structural ceramics are roughly divided intooxide system, non-oxidized Ceramic as well as matrix composites for materials andstructures. Functional ceramics refers to a class of ceramics with electrical,magnetic, optical, acoustic, superconducting, chemical, biological and othercharacteristics, and have a mutual conversion function. Functional ceramics inadvanced ceramics accounted for about 70% of the market share, the rest for thestructural ceramics.
1. OverseasResearch Background and Market Trend.
At present, there is an obviously increasing trend in the advancedceramics technology, application field and market. The United States and Japantake the leading parts of the researching advanced ceramics and application fields. The National Aeronautics andSpace Administration (NASA) is implementing a large-scale research anddevelopment program in the development and processing of structural ceramics,focusing on achieving the advanced ceramics replacement in aeroengine and civilheat engine. At the same time, , NASA will support Biomedical ceramics andoptoelectronic ceramics research and industrialization . The United States"brittle material design" and other 10 plans; the US Federal Plan"advanced materials and materials equipment" in the annual use ofmaterials research and engineering costs up to 2 billion to 2.5 billion USdollars to improve its international competitiveness. Japan's advanced ceramicswith its advanced manufacturing equipment, excellent product stability hasgradually become the international market leader, especially functionalceramics, including thermal, pressure sensitive, magnetic, gas sensitive, lightand other monopoly of the international market. Japan 's Ministry of ForeignTrade fine ceramic research and development of the "Moonlight Plan".
2.Domestic Research Background and Market Trends
From the 1980s to the early 1990s, many modern ceramic theories andprocesses were applied in the preparation of fine ceramics. The use of metalmaterials and the phase transition theory, bionics and other disciplines of thecross so that the performance of the material has been greatly improved, thedevelopment of fiber reinforced composite ceramic, ceramic matrix compositematerial has been greatly improved toughness through the bionic Ceramicpreparation process has been applied, layered materials have been greatlydeveloped. Polymer cracking conversion, chemical vapor deposition (seepage)product, the use of sol technology, making the manufacture of special fibers,continuous fiber composite material preparation technology rapid development.The application of nanotechnology in ceramics has fundamentally changed theproperties of materials, making some ceramics superplastic or greatly reducingthe sintering temperature of ceramics.
Entering into the 21st century, functional ceramics research hasalso been attached great importance by the country and the scientific researchinstitutes . From 1995 to 2015, China's advanced ceramic industry has entered arapid development period, is expected to annual output value up to 45 billionRMB by the end of 2015 Precision small size products, large-size ceramic devicemolding, sintering technology, low-cost large-scale preparation technology,ceramic processing systems and other areas continue to break foreign monopolyand technology blockade. For example, the large-scale fused quartz ceramiccrucible produced by the gel injection molding process has broken the technicalmonopoly of the United States Serendan, Japan's Toshiba and French Vesuvius 3companies, took the lead part in achieving localization. Through nearly fiveyears developing, in 2007, , had formed 110 ~ 1100mm series of products ,reached the world No. 1 in the production capacity